Saturday, December 7, 2019

Commentary and Projections Accounting

Question: Discuss about the Commentary and Projections Accounting. Answer: Introduction The current article considered to offer an in-depth description of the chosen article Half a Defence of Positive Accounting Research. This article is mainly focused towards the investigation of accounting in a positive sense, which will primarily try to synchronise the structure of accounting as per the depiction of human behaviour except the notion of profit after tax in the accounting theory (Apostolou et al. 2016). However, the research on the theory of positive accounting had witnessed a few drawbacks. There have been various difficulties during such research which includes clouded speculative model, huge dependence on the prototype hypothesis and negligence over numerical values. Article Summary In the main article, the positive side of accounting has been focused during the research phase. It has been identified by Ballwieser et al. (2012) that research on the notion of accounting to test its positivism is a part of a project, which relied on great intellect. Thus this can be defined as a scientific research which actually tests the cause and effect relations within the accounting theory. The research on accounting positivism has witnessed some deficiencies but the same has been analysed through thorough study of various papers which includes significant auditing works. It has also been observed that this research on the positivism has some drawbacks. There are some of the loopholes which has been detected in the in the current method of research even after studying various papers in order to deal with the objectives of the research. Furthermore, the description, which has been provided, by Bedford and Ziegler (2016) depicts the notion of normal science which is directly re lated to the positive research of accounting. In the Kuhnian crisis, various possibilities are significantly stated which are the revolutionary in order to achieve the important potential of accounting. Propers criterion has been examined by the researchers also explains that the process of induction does not measure the acuteness of the theory in proper manner. Moreover, the article has also presented the false claims of the positive accounting theories in short reviews. Hence, four major classes have been presented to highlight the significance of the theory, which includes internal impact, measurement of errors, inefficiency of relativity theory and finally that external impact (Bromwich and Scapens 2016). The main objective behind the same was to ensure the non-subjective existence of the specific theory in the observation. This might also be done by selecting between various theories for better understanding and accuracy. In addition to the same, the decision taking observations will claim the falsification of the theories which are unsuitable along with revealing supportive nature towards the particular opposing theory. This article is headed towards pointing out the particular deficiencies along with the logical analysis of the hypothesis bases on the statistical testing. It has also considered as a tempered version of the proper logic (Chatfield and Vangermeersch 2014). The main concern is actually associated with the hypothesis testing with help of statistical tools within the null hypothesis that is very much dependent on the supplementary possibilities. Hence, if the technical issue could not be solved then chances of improved possibility of the hypothesis testing might fail. Research Question/ Hypothesis The research using the concept of hypothesis has been implemented in order to validate the legitimacy of the positive accounting research (Colasse and Durand 2014). H0: The existence of the universe is true which is beyond the level of imagination of an individual H1: All the events in this universe have several reasons that develops a fraction of the overall universe H2: The people those are normal can be able to attain increasingly dependable information in consideration to the observations support H3: The aim of the intellectual property is to use all the obtained informations for attaining useful global understanding of the universe that is mainly causation In order to investigate the first hypothesis, many illustrations on the positive research within the accounting have been offered. In consideration to the views of Crawford and Lepine (2013) the operation of certain rational self-interest among important parties those communicated with implied along with express contracts has resulted in the explaining the appropriate accounting technique. For evaluating the third hypothesis, the researcher has considered explaining scientific ontology along with epistemology, which signifies that the positive accounting study is not identical to the accounting research. In contrast, Deegan (2016) revealed that specific events do not occur either randomly or as the output of intervention from the outer universe. For providing an in-depth evaluation on the third hypothesis, the researcher has signified falsification along with the hypothesis testing in order to explain the research validity. This is the major reason and in consideration to the offered theory careful observation is deemed required through the means of which all the major ideas can be collected (Gaffikin and Aitken 2014). In alignment, it can be gathered that formal theory can be implemented with testable suppositions, which is associated with the existing dependent and certain vital empirical evidences. Several estimations of the innovative theory can be analysed in consideration the new observations in ample situations in which all the new long with old theories has the capability to make many estimations. For evaluating the final hypothesis, many models can is required to be tested with a specific focus or aspect. In consideration to the same, researchers namely Dyckman and Zeff (2015) revealed that the mental models could b e used in order to generate the casual techniques taking place within the universe. This is the major reason considering which the researcher has generated the above hypothesis that is flowed inadequately in the section of literature review. Theoretical Structure The theoretical frameworks those are mentioned in the article for aligning with the study objectives are explained below: Instances of the Positive Research in Accounting: The self-interest operation balance between the selected parties is deemed the result through the implied or expressed contracts in numerous types of organizations (Guthrie and Parker 2016). This signifies the accounting choices on the managers, pricing and the reporting decisions from the side of the auditors, the decision of the regulators is consideration to standard setting along with the professional aspects of academics. It is considered vital that for estimating the types of information that is used by the investor for investment purposes. This signifies that the nature of the human beings is rational. Moreover, this is possible in type of games that is occurred from the positive accounting theory (Henderson et al. 2015). Conversely, after the investigation of the several accounting researches, the settings based on the accounting is evaluated other than coherent behaviour like the technique through which the audit professional s make numerous judgements and the way in which the managers implement the discretion in the systems of performance analysis. This is because such instances intend to explain that the positive research is wider than the theory of positive accounting. Needs for the Effective Program of Positive Research: Considering the chosen article, it was considered that a rapid testing of the difficult models those need superior evaluation of the variable measurements. In addition to this, analytical modelling is the one that is considered extremely vital for generating and analysing the theoretical models (Gow et al. 2016). In order to implement the analytical modelling in the positive accounting research intention, the field before occupation is required to transform from the tractability to the plausibility. The researcher has also made certain that high focus on the measurement is required other than just analysing. This is because along with accounting, certain bias can be linked to the well-built publication that is existent against the dimension other than the same related with the theory. Scientific Epistemology Along with Ontology: It was explained that the epistemology could be considered as a scientific area that has an intention to reveal numerous assessable approaches for gaining a great knowledge on the outer world (Everett et al. 2015). In contrast to that, ontology has developed roles nature, associations along with practices that signify that the social universe is not that efficient to serve as objective sustenance devoid of human beings, the participants and the activities does not need developing numerous rational causes. Additionally, the universe cannot be considered devoid of the experiences of the human beings along with the explanations of the participants. This is the reason for which ontological and epistemological difficulties are caused that has an objective to gain huge understanding of the reasons for accounting techniques that acts as futile exercise (Leone, Minutti-Meza and Wasley 2015). Importance and Limitations of the Article After investigation of the selected article, it can be understood that the research has presented a great gap among the current practices on the positive accounting and this must take into account certain vital contributions in order to broaden the intellectual program. In several cases, there is an observed to be a lack of optimization of system (Guthrie and Parker 2016). This is deemed important for getting modifications and for rectifying a specific mistake. Additionally, the article provides with a rational initiative regarding the scientific research, which is validated by means of taking part in the specific accounting groups. In support of the recent research, it has been observed that there must be a need for efficient conceptual models these are highly reliable on the nature. Additionally, the particular article has provided an in-depth explanation consideration the positive accounting serves as an implication of the quantitative models those are reduced to the statements of the estimated trends among the selected variables (Colasse and Durand 2014). Opposing the aforementioned view, a major limitation that is identified from the article is that the research cannot be highly efficient in leading to awareness on the human behaviour within the context of accounting. This is because of the basis that it does not consider collecting several real life information gathered from numerous sources. This specific limitation is highly acknowledged in this particular article (Crawford and Lupine 2013). In contrast to this, the lack of collecting primary along wit secondary data is observed to affect the research quality. Additionally, the researcher has considered making numerous inferences based on the statements of many authors taking into account positive research accounting. Lastly, the quantitative aspects are not deemed to have huge relevance that is necessary in the current years in order to evaluate the future development of the organization for a longer time. Conclusion The article evaluation in this paper had an objective to evaluate the ontology and epidemiology related wit positive accounting research. This was done n order to ascertain the research loopholes in alignment of the techniques through the means of which such loopholes can be dealt with effectively. In addition, the researcher has also recommended that ample theoretical models can be developed for the testing of the in-depth accounting variables. It was also considered that all the quantitative aspects of the accounting needs being prioritized for determining the future performance of the organization. This is because, it can be inferred that very limited modifications in the program of the positive accounting. This is for decreasing the errors taking place from the organizations in alignment with accounting. Reference List Apostolou, B., Dorminey, J. W., Hassell, J. M. and Rebele, J. E., 2016. Accounting education literature review (2015).Journal of Accounting Education,35, pp. 20-55. Ballwieser, W., Bamberg, G., Beckmann, M. J., Bester, H., Blickle, M., Ewert, R. and Gaynor, M., 2012.Agency theory, information, and incentives. Springer Science Business Media. Bedford, N. M., and Ziegler, R. E., 2016. The contributions of AC Littleton to accounting thought and practice.Memorial Articles for 20th Century American Accounting Leaders,49, p. 219. Bromwich, M. and Scapens, R. W., 2016. Management Accounting Research: 25 years on.Management Accounting Research,31, pp. 1-9. Chatfield, M. and Vangermeersch, R., 2014.The History of Accounting (RLE Accounting): An International Encylopedia. Routledge. Colasse, B. and Durand, R., 2014. 3 French accounting theorists of the twentieth century.Twentieth Century Accounting Thinkers (RLE Accounting), p. 41. Crawford, E. R. and Lepine, J. A., 2013. A configural theory of team processes: Accounting for the structure of taskwork and teamwork.Academy of Management Review,38(1), pp. 32-48. Deegan, C., 2016. Twenty five years of social and environmental accounting research within Critical Perspectives of Accounting: Hits, misses and ways forward.Critical Perspectives on Accounting. Dyckman, T. R. and Zeff, S. A., 2015. Accounting Research: Past, Present, and Future.Abacus,51(4), pp. 511-524. Everett, J., Neu, D., Rahaman, A.S. and Maharaj, G., 2015. Praxis, Doxa and research methods: Reconsidering critical accounting.Critical Perspectives on Accounting,32, pp.37-44. Gaffikin, M. and Aitken, M., 2014.The Development of Accounting Theory (RLE Accounting): Significant Contributors to Accounting Thought in the 20th Century. Routledge. Gow, I.D., Larcker, D.F. and Reiss, P.C., 2016. Causal inference in accounting research.Journal of Accounting Research,54(2), pp.477-523. Guthrie, J. and Parker, L. D., 2016. Whither the accounting profession, accountants and accounting researchers? Commentary and projections.Accounting, Auditing Accountability Journal,29(1), pp. 2-10. Henderson, S., Peirson, G., Herbohn, K. and Howieson, B., 2015.Issues in financial accounting. Pearson Higher Education AU. Leone, A.J., Minutti-Meza, M. and Wasley, C.E., 2015. Influential observations and inference in accounting research. Yee, C.M. and Khin, E.W.S., 2015. Positivist Research and its Influence in Management Accounting Research.Journal of Accounting Perspectives,3(1).

Friday, November 29, 2019

Monday, November 25, 2019

Determination Of The Valency Of Magnesium Essays

Determination Of The Valency Of Magnesium Essays Determination Of The Valency Of Magnesium Paper Determination Of The Valency Of Magnesium Paper 1. To determine the stoichiometry of the magnesium 2. To study the quantitative relations between amounts of reactants and products of the reaction. Theory Background : Stoichiometry is the study of the combination of elements in chemical reactions. Stoichiometry refers to the relative number of atoms of various elements found in a chemical substance and is often useful in characterizing a chemical reaction. The related term stoichiometric is often used in thermodynamics to refer to the perfect mixture of a fuel and air. Stoichiometry is often used to balance chemical equations. In this experimet, a known starting mass of magnesium and the measured collection of hydrogen gas will be used to determine the reaction stoichiometry. Stoichiometry rests upon the law of conservation of mass, the law of definite proportions and the law of multiple proportions. In general, chemical reactions combine in definite ratios of chemicals. Since chemical reactions can neither create nor destroy matter, nor transmute one element into another, the amount of each element must be the same throughout the overall reaction. This experiment determines the stoichiometry of a reaction of magnesium and hydrochloric acid(HCl). The relationship between moles of magnesium reacted and moles of hydrogen produced are plotted. Magnesium ribbon is a strip of magnesium that is solid at room temperature. When mixed with hydrochloric acid it produces magnesium chloride, which is a liquid and hydrogen gas. The below is the equation that occurs: Mg + 2HCl MgCl2 + H2 The word stoichiometry is also used for stoichiometry compound (eg: MgCl the proportion molecule ratio is 1:2). Valency is the adj of valence, which means the valence electron of the atom that is usable for reaction. Valency can also be defined as a measure of the number of chemical bonds formed by the atoms of a given element. In this experiment, the starting weight of magnesium is already known, so hydrogen gas collected can be measured to calculate the stoichiometry reaction, including the valency and the proportional molecule. The purpose of this experiment is to find out the quantitative relations between amounts of reactants and products between magnesium and HCl which is X, by calculating the presence hydrogen atom after the reaction is completed. The value of X is denoted in the following equation, Mg + X HCl i MgClx + X/2 H2 We know that magnesium will react with hydrochloric acid to produce hydrogen gas and magnesium chloride (MgCI) salt. MgCI is soluble but not hydrogen gas, so the gas can be collected in the burette using a filtering funnel. In this experiment, a limiting factor is needed to control the reaction. Magnesium is the best choice since it is in solid form and can be easily fixed in a space compared to hydrochloric acid in aqueous form, so excess hydrochloric acid will ensure that all the known amount of magnesium have reacted. When the volume of the hydrogen gas is obtained, the mole of the gas can be calculated, then substituted into the formula and to get the amount of mole of each molecule, and the difference between how many magnesium we had put in and how many actually reacted can be compared.

Friday, November 22, 2019

Exploring Proper Use of APA Style Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Exploring Proper Use of APA Style - Essay Example All the sources and works used in certain writing must be cited to acknowledge the authors (Bloch 210). Citing the sources of the information written by a student in an assignment depend on the style that a person wishes to use for the assignment. The styles include MLA, APA, Harvard and others and all of them are cited differently (Pecorari 324). All of them require citations after each phrase or sentences that are taken from other sources. In a paper or assignment cited in the APA style, the students must include the author’s sir name and the year of publication in the in text and in the references, details of the books, articles or other sources used should be included (Currie 15). Determining where to put the citations has been a problem to many students in higher learning institutions. Students should have knowledge of all types of citation styles to avoid skipping on important areas which requires citations. Author’s sir name should be included in the in text of all citation styles. Students should do lots of tests to enhance their knowledge on places where they should put their citations (Bloch 219). To effectively avoid plagiarism, students must be fully aware of what is plagiarism and the effects it can bring in their academic lives. Students can avoid plagiarism by taking careful and organized notes during lecture times and when they are reading from books, articles and other sources. They should be sure to include citations after each phrase or sentence taken from those sources (Hall 34). Students should manage their time effectively so that they can have enough time to do their assignments. It is clear that students who do their assignment in the last moment have the tendency to plagiarize so that they can meet their deadlines. Time management helps the students to finish their quality assignment without plagiarizing. A person must be aware of when and

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Information Systems for Management Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Information Systems for Management - Essay Example Getting closer to the customer and maintaining valuable relationships with members along the supply chain are some of the major issues circulating around the companies at present. Web-based selling, sales force automation and integrated customer service are the technologies and buzzwords that are fast becoming a company's focus point. In addition to that, the customers are busy dealing with so many things at the same time that they don't have time to personally visit physical locations or wait in lines to do their respective duties. They rather prefer doing business with companies that provide them with ease and comfort and as little hassle as possible; these are the companies that have web-based systems. The paper that follows will identify the types of web-based systems and how essential they are for companies to be competitive, retain their market share, satisfy existing customers and attract new ones. E banking is one of the web-based systems that a bank may use to improve its relationship with its customers or suppliers and effectively carry out its business. E banking involves all the banking activities that can be carried out from home, business or while on the road without being at a physical bank location. It is the new way of doing business with a bank and has brought about the hassle free way of conducting business. It incorporates many advantages for the banks as well as the customers. An example of a bank using e banking facilities is the Wells Fargo bank. The customers are facilitated greatly because they can do several activities like: View account balances at any time of the day Receive personal bank account statements Pay bills without the need to stand in queues Download their account transactions on their personal PCs Funds transfer between accounts Can handle their finances while traveling Can perform any bank related activity whenever it's feasible for them. Advantages of E banking are: Real time banking- can be done from anywhere at any time. Saves time- customers don't need to stand in lines to pay bills or personally visit a bank to carry out transactions. Convenience- customers don't need to cramp all their banking activities in the 9 to 5 banking hours; they can do everything at their own convenience. Attract more customers- the banks are able to attract those customers as well who are in remote areas and were previously discouraged by the far away location of the physical bank. Increased customer base- banks offering e-banking facilities are able to enjoy a large customer base and hence a competitive edge over traditional banks. Saving of costs- the banks are able to save the cost of paper transactions and the cost of hiring extra employees to deal with the large amount of customers. Disadvantages of E banking are: Losing valuable customers- if the main server is down and the customers are unable to process their transactions, they'll be dissatisfied and prefer not to do business with that bank the next time and the bank will lose current and prospective customers as well. Maintenance issues- the bank will need to hire expert personnel to deal with maintenance issues and proper handling of the expert systems. Security issues- hackers are a potential threat to both customers and the bank. Higher costs- the banks need to install costly safety systems such as firewalls to ensure safety and reliability of the systems. There are some implementation issues with

Monday, November 18, 2019

The effects of oral medications on the peridontium Essay

The effects of oral medications on the peridontium - Essay Example The gums firmly enclose the teeth around their exposed portion or the neck. Gingival enlargement or hyperplasia occurs as an undesirable side effect of some drugs such as corticosteroids, tetracycline, phenytoin, ibuprofen, cyclosporine and calcium channel antagonists. This can lead to misalignment of the teeth resulting in cosmetic problems, cause problems with eating, speech and impede effective tooth cleaning. Gingival enlargement thus needs to be treated either locally or with the aid of therapeutic dental strategies. The two major diseases of this region are Gingivitis and Periodontitis which can be triggered by either poor oral hygiene leading to bacterial infection and plaque formation, or as a result of drug induced side effects. Risk factors for the prevalence of drug-induced gingival overgrowth include age, and gender, with young people, and males being more susceptible. 1. Tetracycline’s: This group of drugs is a broad spectrum antibiotic and has a propensity to leave residues in bones, teeth and their associated structures. They are also widely used as adjuncts in the broad spectrum antibiotic coverage in periodontal disease. Systemic use of this class of drugs leads to the inhibition of orthodontically induced root and alveolar bone resorption. This occurs because of the additional effect of Tetracycline’s in exerting an anti inflammatory action which prevents collegenolysis (Golub et al., 1984). The destruction of collagen is an essential step in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease. In a study conducted in rats by Mavragani et al, (2005) it was found that Doxycycline exerts a significant inhibitory effect on root resorption and alveolar bone distraction in rats. 2. Phenytoin: This is an extensively used anti epileptic drug and its usage leads to gingival enlargement in almost 50% of the patients which usually requires surgical intervention. The hyperplasia

Saturday, November 16, 2019

Globalisation during the twentieth century

Globalisation during the twentieth century International Relations Explain the significance of the advance of media and communications to the process of globalisation during the twentieth century. The twentieth century saw the speed of technological achievement soaring as the human race innovated and developed quicker than ever before. After the western discovery of the New World in the early modern period there was a great influx of Europeans across the Atlantic seeking out new opportunities and long distance communication became more and more important to remain in contact globally. Technological advances of the twentieth century not only aided this difficult problem, but created a globalised world where vast distances became no feat in ensuring the smooth functioning of life, business and politics. For example, in 1865, when US President Abraham Lincoln was assassinated it took the news twelve days to travel to the United Kingdom. This delivery required the use of boats to carry the message across the Atlantic and then telegraph to deliver it from Cork in Ireland, to London. One hundred and thirty six years later, on 11th September 2001, there was a terrorist attack on the World Trade Centre in New York. The attack comprised of two planes hitting the two towers with roughly twenty minutes between them. By the time the second plane hit the second tower there was an audience of around two billion who watched the second attack in real time. The technological advances of the twentieth century and the emergence of global media is what made this vast improvement and the development of a global village possible. Innovators of the nineteenth century had already developed a primitive wired telegraph system which was used as the primary means of communication during this century (obviously other than of course the global standard for millennia word of mouth). The downside of the telegraph was that whilst it was quicker than anything before, it was still a slow means of communication. The system still required telephone cables and although it was one of the first good examples of clear and more rapid international communication, it lacked the instantaneousness of modern ‘globalised communication. Another drawback was that it was not until undersea cables were laid in the middle of the twentieth century that telegraphs could be sent across the Atlantic; and by this time other more reliable forms of transatlantic communication had been developed. It was not until inventors in the twentieth century, such as Marconi, began dabbling with radio signals that the radio telegraph was created. Utilising these newly discovered radio waves in December 1901 Marconi telegraphed the letter ‘S across the Atlantic from St. Johns in Newfoundland, to Poldhu in Cornwall, a distance of eighteen hundred miles, using kite-born aerials at around one thousand feet. From this point radiotelegraphy took off and became one of the most revolutionary changes in communication in centuries, adopted especially favourably by the armed forces who began using it to communicate between ships which had until then been primarily using homing pigeons and visual signalling. There is difficulty in pinpointing the exact time when radio was first used to communicate human voice as claims are varied. However the first transatlantic human broadcast took place in 1915 with the signal moving first from New York to San Francisco, then to Naval Radio Station NAA at A rlington Virginia and finally from there across the Atlantic Ocean to the Eiffel Tower in Paris, France. By November 1920, the U.S. was operating a daily broadcast of scheduled radio programs, with the first being the 1920 U.S. Presidential election results. The importance of this history of radio is to first demonstrate the speed at which radio was developed, but more importantly to illustrate that by the 1920s human voices could be transmitted across oceans to communicate with what less than two hundred years ago would be near isolated countries. Not only this but the broadcast of the 1920 election results was arguably the first example of radio being used as a form of media, to publicize political news to the wider world. Throughout the next eighty years radio improved dramatically, including the introduction of FM (standing for frequency modulation the technology used) which controlled static to give a high-fidelity sound. In 1954 Sony produced the worlds first transistor radio, bringing to the world a revolutionary new step where radios became cheaper and by the latter half of the century the majority of the population of western nations owned one. Radio was not the only method for the broadcast of human voice, indeed the more direct, one-to-one method of communicating over long distances was the telephone. According to ATT, one of the leading telecommunications companies in the United States, by 1904, right at the beginning of the twentieth century, there were already over three million connected phones in the United States. The design and technological improvements increased throughout the twentieth century allowing people across the globe to talk directly in real time (this also laid the groundwork for later developments in computer networking). The improvements aided globalisation to an incredible degree by allowing business and social interaction to take place not in the form of a letter sent and taking days or even weeks to arrive, but instantaneously. The merging of this technology with the concept of two-way radios created after the invention of the radio led to the development of the mobile phone. The military were pri mary users of the concept throughout the early twentieth century but it was not until the 1950s that mobile phones became practical, and not until the last decade of the century that the pocket mobile phone became commonplace. Communication over long distance, and indeed globally, was then possible from anywhere on the earth (or at least where signal was found, which by the end of the century covered most places in almost all countries across the world. One of the next important innovations of the twentieth century was the invention of the television. By the mid 1920s inventors on both sides of the Atlantic were working on capturing, transmitting and receiving live images, with pioneers such as Scottish inventor John Logie Baird (famous for his original mechanical television set) and Americans Philo Farnsworth and Vladimir Zworykin (who were focussed on all electric units using cathode ray tubes). Regularly scheduled television broadcasts began in the late 1920s in the United States and throughout many other western nations by the 1930s, but it was not really until the 1950s that televisions entered the average home. By this time mechanical televisions had been made obsolete in favour of the higher definition image produced by the newer purely electronic devices. Programming focussed around films and live dramas which dominated household entertainment across the world by the 1960s; first in monochrome, and eventually, during the fif ties and sixties, in full colour. Despite the arguably slow start for television in the latter half of the twentieth century television became the single most important form of entertainment and media in the majority of the developed world. The majority of news throughout Europe and North America especially was delivered via the television and towards the end of the century broadcasts were running twenty four hours a day, seven days a week. In 1963 the assassination of President John F. Kennedy and Lyndon Johnsons succession gained four days of coverage, whereas the U.S. moon landing in 1969 was reputedly viewed by 94% of American television homes. It is almost impossible to debate that by the end of the twentieth century television was the dominant form of media in the western world, with a reported ninety nine percent of households owning at least one television and with an average of nearly seven hours exposure a day, much of it based on global issues, events and information. This exposure has created a population which is more informed about the world around them than ever before, and due to the simplicity and lack of necessary engagement or effort it appeals to almost everyone. Television has also seen the growth of film and scripted television shows. Hollywood dominates the global film and television market with its programming shown throughout the entire world, and although there are many national groups vying for a share in the highly profitable industry, there is no comparison to their American counterpart. As stated by Sinclair, Jacka and Cunningham Hollywood has established itself as the ‘international best practice, and as stated by Mooney and Evans ‘Wherever you go in the world people know of Mickey Mouse, Star Wars and Rambo.. The films produced by Hollywood are globally known, and despite a delay between release dates in the U.S. and the rest of the world they are available no matter where you are on the earth. This demonstrates vast improvement even from the beginning of the century where by no means every country even had the technology to play films and television created in the United States. Another noticeable effect of television and film on globalisation is the merging of cultures. Whereas in centuries previous there was little or no real exposure to foreign cultures other than actually visiting them the television in the twentieth century has brought thousands of different cultures into the living rooms of billions in the world. Language, clothing, design and rituals have been adopted and adapted in many societies leading to hybrid creations and entirely new cultures coming into existence. New cultures share elements from existing ones, taking specific traits and altering them to fit their own lifestyle or geography another key illustration of the globalised world. Aided by the growth in technology throughout the century the mass media has grown to become one of the single most important forces of globalisation. News groups and organisations such as Reuters and the BBC have thousands of people stationed throughout the world keeping their finger on the pulse and ensuring that the rest of the world is up to date to the minute with the events throughout the globe. Not only making it easier to hear about global events, the mass media has ensured that ever minor world events receive some coverage and consequently the world feels much more united. No longer is the news purely built around the happenings in North America and Europe (although to a degree this news does gain the majority of coverage), every crisis or affair throughout the third world is reported to the rest of the humanity. Perhaps the single most important and revolutionary development of the century was the creation of the computer and the worldwide network known as the Internet. The computer had been in development since the 1940s with individuals and teams across the world developing faster computers with more processing power. Yet it wasnt until the 1980s where personal computers for use in the home became practical, and not for nearly another decade before they were economical. However by the 1990s computers were owned in millions of homes across the world, increasing more and more throughout the last decade of the century. The attribute of computers that really aided the globalisation process however was networking and the internet. By connecting the computers of the world together using the existing telephone network (and later fibre optics) there was an immediate and permanent connection between all computers on the planet. Information could be transferred instantly across the entire span of th e world in milliseconds. As well as this, with developments in wireless technology internet access could be achieved almost anywhere mobile signal was found. In its original design, the precursor to the Internet, ARPANET, was designed as a system for the military and universities to share information, but it quickly grew in usage and spread to the wider civilian community. The effect of the internet on media was revolutionary. Photos, videos and stories could be uploaded to news sites instantaneously from anywhere in the world. More fundamentally however was that the internet created journalists out of anyone willing to contribute. Due to the freedom and lack control over what could or could not be shared over the internet (a fundamental value of the internet community, which has to an extent been taken advantage of with the ability to pirate information) anyone wanting to publish a story or report on an event was fully capable of doing so and have the chance to have the entire world read it. Consequently news reporting became a more mass project than ever before with even the potential for less influence from biased sources. By the end o f the century millions of people were actively reporting news on the internet and millions more turned to the independent news sources instead of the mainstream media. The Internet has also continued the trends set by television and film, allowing people across the world to get hold of and view television shows and films that they would never have had the chance to obtain beforehand. Similarly, literature, essays and reports are found in the billions online where they can be accessed from anywhere. In this way it can be said that the internet truly revolutionised information, allowing it to be accessed anywhere by anyone, and although this may not be true in all countries (some governments choose to limit and censor the content of the internet in their own territory) there is a level of freedom and globalisation that has never been seen before. The key importance of the advance of communications technology and media throughout the twentieth century has been its significance in creating a global village and its major role in the process of globalisation. As outlined, the growth of technology in communication has meant that society has advanced from its sluggish pace at the beginning of the twentieth century, to the instantaneous speed of the 1990s. As well as this the content of communications has improved allowing massive amounts of data to be sent in an instant as opposed to a short letter. Media coverage of the entire globe in real time makes keeping the world updated entirely simple and the number of people reporting has meant that the ‘official news sources are not always the first to report a story. Most importantly however these advances have created an infinitely smaller world where oceans and vast distances between countries do not eliminate the need or desire to know about them or communicate with them, to th e point where nations are closer than ever at a civilian level, not just politically. Bibliography Books Giddens, A., ‘Sociology, 6th ed. (Polity: Cambridge, 2009) Mooney, A., Evans, B., ‘Globalization, The Key Concepts (Routledge: London, 2007) Sinclair, J., Jacka, E., Cunningham, S., ‘New Patterns in Global Television: Peripheral Vision (Oxford University Press: Oxford, 1996) Winston, B., ‘Media, Technology and Society A History: From the Telegraph to the Internet (Routledge: London, 1998) Websites About.com, ‘The Invention of the Radio, http://inventors.about.com/od/rstartinventions/a/radio.htm accessed January 19th 2010 ATT, ‘ATT: A Brief History: Origins, http://www.corp.att.com/history/history1.html, accessed January 19th 2010 GSM World, ‘GSM Coverage Map, http://www.gsmworld.com/roaming/gsminfo/index.shtml accessed January 19th 2010 ThinkQuest, ‘Television: The History, http://library.thinkquest.org/18764/television/history.html, accessed 19th January 2010 ‘Television Health, http://www.csun.edu/science/health/docs/tvhealth.html, accessed 20th January 2010 Giddens, A., ‘Sociology, 6th ed. (Polity: Cambridge, 2009) Ch. 17 ‘The Media pg.723 Ibid. Winston, B., ‘Media, Technology and Society A History: From the Telegraph to the Internet (Routledge: London, 1998) pg. 272 ‘The Invention of the Radio, About.com, http://inventors.about.com/od/rstartinventions/a/radio.htm accessed 19th January 2010 Ibid. Ibid. ‘The Invention of the Radio, About.com, http://inventors.about.com/od/rstartinventions/a/radio.htm accessed 19th January 2010 ‘ATT: A Brief History: Origins, http://www.corp.att.com/history/history1.html, accessed 19th January 2010 ‘GSM Coverage Map, http://www.gsmworld.com/roaming/gsminfo/index.shtml accessed 19th January 2010 ‘Television: The History, http://library.thinkquest.org/18764/television/history.html, accessed 19th January 2010 ‘Television Health, http://www.csun.edu/science/health/docs/tvhealth.html, accessed 20th January 2010 Sinclair, J., Jacka, E., Cunningham, S., ‘New Patterns in Global Television: Peripheral Vision (Oxford University Press: Oxford, 1996) pg. 13 Mooney, A., Evans, B., ‘Globalization, The Key Concepts (Routledge: London, 2007) pg. 111